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The columnar type of apple tree bred by Canadian breeders is interesting for its structure. On thickened shoots, the leaves are so close to each other that the trees look like green columns with a dense compact crown. Thanks to this, in a small area, you can plant a garden and get high yields of aromatic apples. Among the tree varieties, the Elite columnar apple tree can be distinguished, which is valued for a number of positive qualities.
Description and features
The Elite apple variety has many advantages:
- The columnar semi-dwarf forms a compact crown, intensively developing during the first 3 years of life.
- Straight shoots are strongly thickened, and the trunk is densely covered with annelids.
- Repiform fruits appear from the 2-3rd year of life. They reach full maturity in late September - mid-October.
- The average mass of ruddy apples ranges from 100 to 150 grams.
- The fruits are distinguished by a sweet and sour dessert taste, they are preserved during the winter. The flavor of the harvest only improves over time.
- The apple tree is not affected by scab, it is resistant to pests, like the best standard varieties.
The columnar apple-tree Elite is also appreciated for its decorative effect. With the help of plantations, alleys, hedges are created in suburban areas. The fruit tree is unpretentious in care.
Breeding history of the variety
Elite was bred by Russian breeders under the guidance of Professor V. V. Kichina by crossing.
There are several varieties of the variety, differing in the donor used. Elite:
- 224/8 from Vazhak variety and scab immunity donor;
- 310/3 - donor of columnarity and scab resistance;
- 368/139 obtained by crossing the Ivanovskoe apple tree and the KB9 form;
- 384/168 - through sowing KB102 seeds by free pollination;
- 385/185 was obtained after sowing KB103 seeds also by free pollination;
- KB22 through the connection of donor material of columnar shape with immunity to scab;
- M38 / 35 due to the crossing of the Cinnamon striped apple tree and the Vazhak variety.
Fruit hybrids have been obtained since 1982. For 10 years, new versions of the elite variety have been created. They differ in different winter hardiness. Therefore, it is necessary to choose those varieties that will survive and bear fruit in this region.
Characteristics of the columnar apple elite
It is worthwhile to study the main characteristics of the variety in more detail in order to make the right decision.
Dimensions of the tree
The Elita variety belongs to semi-dwarf trees, reaching 2-3 meters in height at maturity. The tree is distinguished by its compactness of the crown. The small size of the plant allows it to be planted in small suburban areas. The shoots of the tree are powerful with short internodes. There are many ringlets on the trunk, which allows the apple tree to bear fruit abundantly, starting from the 2nd-4th year of life.
The frequency of fruiting
The first fruits appear after 2-3 years of life of the tree on ringlets. At first there will be a few of them, from 2 to 5 pieces. Fruiting grows intensively every year. Best of all, the variety bears fruit in the 3rd and 4th year of budding, kidney grafting.
The hybrid belongs to the autumn-winter species, since apples reach technical maturity in October. You can store them from a month to 4.
Productivity and fruit assessment
The yield of a garden culture depends on care. With proper cultivation techniques, the Elite can produce up to 30 kilograms of apples from one tree.
Fruits are evaluated from 4 to 5 points, having:
- pleasant aroma;
- dessert sweet and sour taste;
- juicy yellow-green pulp;
- ruddy skin.
Fruits are even, without ribbing, well preserved, do not spoil. And their taste gets better with the duration of storage.
Many varieties of the Elita variety are frost-resistant to the standard level. Elite 224/8 and 284/168 do not tolerate low temperatures. Very often, the top of a columnar apple tree freezes slightly, as it does not have time to ripen due to protracted growth. If watering the tree is excluded in time, and nitrogen is applied in moderation, then this will not happen.
Diseases and pests
The advantage of the Elite columnar apple is its absolute scab resistance. Rarely can there be infection with fungal infections due to improper tree care. This can be avoided by protecting the apple tree from frost damage. The winter sun is harmful, burning the trunk, dehydrating the cells of the bark. Protect the tree by whitewashing the trunk with lime, tying with brushwood, cloth.
Of the pests, the apple moth is dangerous, the caterpillars of which damage the fruits. Many gardeners prepare containers with kerosene diluted with water in a ratio of 1:15. The containers illuminated at night attract butterflies, and they die if they get into the liquid. Harmful to fruit crops and aphids. They get rid of it by spraying the trees with tobacco infusion.
Suitable columnar hybrid Elite for growing in the gardens of the Moscow region. You can plant it in the Urals and Siberia, but wrapping it up for the winter. Low frost resistance varieties, 224/8 and 284/168, are only suitable for southern areas.