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Every owner of a farm containing sows should know how much a pregnant pig walks and what are the features of this process. Without a sufficient amount of knowledge, it will be difficult to prepare well for childbirth, provide assistance to livestock, and properly equip and raise offspring.
What changes occur in the pig's body during pregnancy
The period of gestation is considered difficult in a pig's life, so preparation for it should be appropriate. At this moment, the following changes occur in the body of the piggy female:
- Intra-abdominal pressure rises, in connection with this, acts of defecation and urination become more frequent, breathing becomes more frequent. Protein can be found in the urine of fertilized pigs.
- Hypertrophy of the heart muscle of the pregnant woman, especially the left ventricle, is observed, the vascular tone is significantly increased.
- There is a change in metabolism, namely, a violation of mineral metabolism, the volume of calcium and phosphorus decreases, the alkaline reserve in the blood is depleted.
- Accumulation of nitrogenous substances, placental hormones is possible, assimilation of carbohydrates and fat in a pregnant woman improves.
Important! You can find out about the pregnancy of a female based on many external signs, but conclusions can only be drawn after 1 month.
What does the timing depend on?
The duration of gestation in gilts in theory lasts an average of 110 to 126 days. In practice, a pig carries piglets for a little less than 4 months. Experienced farmers quote an average pregnancy rate of 3 months, 3 weeks and 3 days.
The duration of this process also depends on many factors that affect not only the timing, but also the course of pregnancy in general:
- Breed. Small and fast-growing species of pigs carry offspring much less than others. For example, the Vietnamese pot-bellied pig gives birth to more than 20 piglets in one farrowing, while the pregnancy lasts significantly less than 4 months.
- Age. Young individuals need more time for the normal formation of offspring. Piglets of the same breed are able to bear piglets less.
- Number of births before farrowing. The first time the pregnancy lasts a relatively long time, already by the next offspring the uterus gets used to the load and helps the formation of the fetus in a short time.
- Pig size. Larger females take more days to develop a healthy fetus, while sows of the same breed at a lower weight can carry and give birth to a pig faster.
- Conditions. The weather is of great importance, as pregnancy usually passes quickly and without complications in cold times.
It is worth considering that the timing of pregnancy in pigs is an individual feature that can vary depending on external and internal factors.
Important! Experienced experts say that everything you need for childbirth should be prepared by the 110th day before the expected moment of conception.
How to determine if a mumps is pregnant
It is possible to determine the pregnancy of a pig 1 month after fertilization by several signs:
- lethargy, smooth movement, lethargy;
- discharge of curd secretion from the vagina;
- swelling of the nipples;
- during the month there is no desire for sexual intercourse;
- change in appetite;
- an increase in body weight.
There are other methods for determining the pregnancy of an animal, which are distinguished by their accuracy and availability.
Many farmers use the Burkina test, which helps determine at home whether a pig is pregnant with 98% accuracy.
- Collecting subject's urine.
- Filtration of the resulting liquid.
- Adding 2 drops of hydrochloric acid, an aqueous solution of filinhydrazil hydrochloric acid, hydrogen peroxide 3%.
- Boiling the resulting mass and cooling.
If the liquid turns dark red, this is a sign that the pig is pregnant. If the urine has not changed its yellow color, then the cattle is not pregnant.
Inspection by a specialist
A veterinarian, or other specialist with the necessary skills, conducts rectal examinations, they are possible only 30 days after mating. Before the procedure, it is necessary to fix the pig, insert a hand in a glove treated with petroleum jelly into the rectum and probe the airway, urogenital and uterine arteries. The latter should increase in size and vibrate. This condition indicates that the pig is carrying piglets.
An experienced veterinarian can determine the timing of pregnancy based on the enlargement and pulsation of all three arteries.
The Doppler device measures the heart rate of the fetus carried by the pig. Its accuracy on the 21st day after fertilization is 90%. In addition to the first month, it can be used in the future to control the condition of future offspring.
You can determine pregnancy using an ultrasound machine, usually this method is used on large-scale farms and farms that breed pigs. It can be applied on the 20th day after fertilization. If you follow the terms and rules, the guaranteed result is 95%.
The device, depending on the capabilities of the equipment and its modernity, determines whether a pig is pregnant by the presence of:
- palpitations in the fetus;
- fluid in the uterus.
The pig can be both in a standing and in a lying position, the main thing is that it does not move.
A vaginal biopsy is an expensive method that relies on tests of mucus from the pig's genital tract to tell you exactly if the animal is pregnant. To do this, a special instrument is inserted into the vagina at least 150 mm so that the device becomes covered with liquid, and a small amount of mucus is caught, which is placed in a special container and sent to the laboratory.
A pig may have a false pregnancy - this is a phenomenon in which these symptoms appear, and heat stops immediately after mating. In such a situation, after a while, you need to place the female with the males and observe her behavior. If the pig behaves rudely and does not allow anyone to come near it, then it is pregnant.
Sow and piglet care
While waiting for the offspring, farmers should carefully prepare and create favorable conditions for childbirth and further maintenance of the sow:
- wash the pigsty from dirt with hot water using alkali;
- whitewash the walls with lime;
- set the correct temperature (15-25 degrees), humidity (65-70%);
- cover the bottom of the room with straw or sawdust.
Experienced farmers are advised to purchase special maternity cages and send a pregnant pig there a few days before giving birth in order to minimize the mortality of piglets after asphyxiation. In contractions with an interval of 5 minutes, the birth of babies has already begun. For stimulation in hot weather, you can douse the animal with water.
Important! At the first contractions of the pig, you should call the veterinarian in order to avoid a variety of consequences.
In the first days after farrowing the sow, it is necessary to accustom each pig to a certain nipple and control that all babies suck their nipples.
This is important not only for the piglets, but also for the sow, as it protects her from mastitis. Also watch how the umbilical cord dries up in piglets.
A tired woman in labor should be given rest, her health should be monitored and certain care should be provided, which includes:
- Permanent access to water.
- First feeding 12 hours after farrowing in the form of a liquid talker. And in a day - full nutrition, containing a large amount of feed and fat-containing products.
- Short-term walking on the 3-4th day, which will improve digestion.
Signals to contact the veterinarian:
- refusal of the pig from feed;
- purulent discharge from the genitals;
- swelling of the udder.
Possible problems and diseases
There are many problems at the time of gestation of a pig, which arise from errors in nutrition, keeping animals, as well as in the presence of various diseases.
Reasons for the birth of sick, non-viable piglets:
- lack of protein, vitamins and minerals in the diet;
- the use of poor-quality moldy or sour feed;
- drinking ice water;
- injuries to the uterus and fetuses due to hauls and movements through narrow passages;
- anomalies and diseases.
Among the most common pig diseases that cause mass abortions are brucellosis, leptospirosis, mycoplasmosis, transmissible gastroenteritis, enterovirus infection, plague, and Aujeszky's disease.
Features of pregnancy of Vietnamese pigs
Vietnamese pigs have a shorter gestation period than other breeds. The maximum period is 110 days. The gestation period depends on the number of fruits. During the first pregnancy, an average of 5 piglets will be obtained at the exit, and in the future from 9 to 12.